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Harvesting lodged corn

Agriculture.com Staff 09/20/2006 @ 9:25am

Nearly every year, adverse weather and crop conditions result in lodged corn in a few fields.

Lodging may be caused by wind storm, stalk rot or other disease, rootworm activity or some combination of these. Regardless, it is a frustrating situation.

Combine operators need to accept that harvest will not be routine in these areas and recognize that extra time will be required.

A careful assessment of the situation should be made prior to harvest. How many acres are lodged? How severe is the lodging? What percentage of the total acres that must be harvested does this represent? Will labor and equipment availability be adequate to handle the situation?

Each situation is unique and different combine operators will respond in various ways according to the conditions. Generally, lodged fields should be harvested when they are first ready to avoid increased lodging by further stalk disease development or wind storm.

In order to evaluate possible changes that may improve combine harvest, it is important to measure losses in the field behind the combine. Ears that stay below the combine head and are not gathered in by the gathering chains on to the stripper bars are the most common source of machine loss in lodged corn. Each 3/4-lb ear found in a hundredth of an acre plot equals a loss of one bushel per acre.

For example, an operator using an eight-row, 30-inch corn head (20 feed wide) would check an area 21 feet by nine inches long and eight rows wide behind the combine. Finding five 3/4-pound ears would equal a loss of five bushels per acre.

If losses are excessive, check a similar unharvested area ahead of the combine for ears already lying on the ground and not attached to stalks. These would be preharvest losses that would be unlikely to be able to be picked up by the head regardless of adjustment. Kicking through cornstalks on the ground may help to find dropped ears hidden by stalks and leaves.

Slowing combine travel speed may reduce the amount of missed ears. Harvesting "against the grain" (harvesting toward the west in east-leaning cornstalks) also may reduce losses. Evaluate possible improvements by measuring losses.

Make sure ear savers on the corn head are in good condition. Keep gathering snouts as low as practical to pick up downed ears. Gathering chains may need to be more aggressive.

If many acres of severely lodged corn are present and the window of time for harvest is anticipated to be short, consider a corn head reel or other attachments like crop dividers or lifters. Several after-market manufacturers market reels that can be mounted over the corn head to help lift and guide stalks into the head. Check availability through dealers or the Internet.

Even if a reel does not decrease losses, it may allow faster combine travel speed with similar losses, allowing harvest to proceed in a more timely manner. Crop dividers mounted on each side of the head help to lift ears into the head that might otherwise escape.

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