New price-based nitrogen recommendations available online
New nitrogen application recommendations -- focused on dollars and cents -- are now available online.
The tri-state (Ohio, Michigan, Indiana) fertilizer recommendations, which focus on current fertilizer and crop prices rather than yield potential, can be found at http://agcrops.osu.edu/fertility. The information includes a nitrogen rate calculator specifically for Ohio. Recommendations for other states can be found at http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soilfertility/nrate.aspx.
"It is intuitive that higher corn yields will result in greater nitrogen demand from the soil, but does that translate into higher nitrogen demand? Investigation of nitrogen rate studies conducted over several years reveals that there is not a strong relationship between maximum yield potential and the amount of nitrogen needed to achieve maximum yield," said Robert Mullen, an Ohio State University soil scientist with the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. "So utilizing yield potential to dictate nitrogen recommendations may not be the most effective method, especially when nitrogen costs are high. Historically, we've treated excess nitrogen as cheap crop insurance. While it was then, that's not the case anymore."
Fertility specialists throughout the Corn Belt have devised a new system that bases optimum nitrogen rates on the current price of fertilizer and the average price of the crop. For example, if nitrogen is 25 cents per pound and the price of corn is $2.50 a bushel, to achieve 175 bushels per acre of corn in northwest Ohio, the best nitrogen rate would be 156 pounds, with an application range of 150 to 180 pounds. As the cost of nitrogen or the price of corn changes, the optimum rate of nitrogen also changes.
In the past, growers would apply the maximum of 196 pounds of nitrogen to achieve 175 bushels per acre. This amount ensured that the crop suffered no nitrogen deficiency.
"It boils down to an exercise in risk management. The old system uses a single value, while this new system gives farmers a range to work with," said Mullen, who also holds an Ohio State University Extension appointment. "If farmers are risk averse, they can use the high side of the rate range. If they are more willing to accept risk, they can use a lower side of the rate range, increasing their potential for economic reward."
Mullen said that the current fertilizer recommendations needed to be updated for several reasons.
"One reason is that the system assumes the soil is a blank medium and devoid of natural nitrogen. We know that's not true," said Mullen. "And the problem we run into is that we don't know exactly how much nitrogen is in the soil and how much will be available to the crop. The release of nitrogen is dependent on the weather, so there's always a possibility of adding more or less nitrogen to the soil than is needed."
Another point Mullen made is that nitrogen applied to the soil always reaches a point of saturation, and yield eventually levels off no matter how much more nitrogen is added. As a result, farmers are potentially wasting money on unneeded nitrogen using the current nitrogen recommendations.