Fueling a greener world with crops
Agriculture is at the dawn of a new age that will continue to feed humans while it replaces some petroleum and petrochemicals used to make synthetic clothing and carpet.
That's the vision that a DuPont group vice president brought to farmers and biofuels experts gathered in Des Moines, Iowa, Tuesday.
"We have never been more excited about what agriculture can do," said Erik Fyrwald, the group vice president for the company's seed, farm chemicals, and nutrition and health products.
Fyrwald showed an image of DuPont's new startup plant in Loudon, Tennessee, that began production last fall of a chemical, 1, 3-propanediol that's made from corn sugar. The plant is a joint venture with Tate & Lyle. Some of the first shipments went to DuPont to make Sorona, the company's trademarked fabric that will be used for clothing and carpet. By making the stuff from corn, the factory saves the equivalent of 10 million gallons of gasoline a year.
Using biological products to replace petrochemicals is yet another way to reduce petroleum use, and to also combat global warming.
Two weeks ago Fyrwald was in Davos, Switzerland, at the World Economic Forum, a gathering of corporate and government leaders and representatives of nongovernmental organizations and universities.
"This year the overwhelming consensus is the number one challenge facing the world is climate change," Fyrwald said. And those at Davos also agreed that "biofuels have to play a very big role in addressing climate change."
DuPont, which owns Pioneer Hi-Bred International in Des Moines, is working on that from several angles. Its breeding corn that will increase yields as well as producing more fermentable starches for making ethanol. Late this year, in partnership with BP, it will begin test marketing biobutanol in Britain. The fuel has the advantage of providing better mileage than ethanol, of being shipped through pipelines and blending well with either ethanol or gasoline.
The commercial viability of butanol is still three to five years aways, Fyrwald said, as is the viability of ethanol made from biomass like switchgrass.
"Today we can convert cellulose to starches and biofuels, but again, its not economical," he said. Commercialization of fuels from switchgrass is also at least three to five years away, he said.
The development of cellulosic ethanol is one of the reasons that General Motors decided to ramp up production of flexible fuel vehicles that can burn E-85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), said Mary Beth Stanek, the company's director of environment and energy. One estimate based on University of Toronto data shows 35% of the nationâ€™s light duty fuels coming from cellulosic ethanol by 2020.