Full house for local cover crop field day: Sign of the times?
One of Meade’s fields, which visitors could view from the shop, consists of several soil types that range from 9% to 18% slopes. The field already includes a buffer strip and wide grass waterways, and Meade uses minimum tillage. But he’s still not happy with the soil erosion brought about by volatile weather in recent years. He’s interested in cover crops for further erosion control as well as a means to boost soil organic matter.
Other Iowa and Midwest farmers have shown increased interest in cover crops this year, including for management of stands on prevented planting acres. In a Successful Farming magazine reader survey early this year, 28% of farmers said they were now using cover crops, and another 38% said they expected to plant them in the future.
Jim Fawcett, an Iowa State Extension specialist, kicked off the Johnson County, Iowa, session touting the value of cover crops in helping reach the state's voluntary program for reducing nutrient losses. Cover crops can cut nitrate–N losses by about 30%, a big step in reaching conservation goals, he said.
Two farmers experienced with cover crop use headlined the event and drew good interaction from attendees, which included agency representatives, seed dealers, and aerial applicators. Questions from farmers centered on the agronomic details of managing cover crops -- species selection, seeding methods and timing, spring management, and more.
Steve Berger (photo, above), an eastern Iowa farmer with 10 years of experience in using cover crops in no-till, said there are three keys to success with the system: getting the planter set up properly, being ready to use insecticides, and applying nitrogen in a timely fashion.
“The most important thing is learning how to manage your nitrogen, because the increased microbes [with cover crops] that reduce the residue out there are also going to take nitrogen and compete with the corn,” Berger said. “So managing that nitrogen, getting more nitrogen put on with the corn planter, and sidedressing, is key. It’s not about using more nitrogen, but getting timely applications.”
Yields, he said, are “holding their own and steadily increasing."
Berger plants mainly cereal rye, typically at a rate of 1 bu/ac, but has sometimes upped it to 2 bu/ac, often drilled in right behind the planter, but at times as late as the first of December. Because he already owned a drill, the application cost is about the same as aerial seeding, he says.